- Why RSI
- About RSI
Time is money, and flow rate - whether down hole or surface level - must be optimized. However, emulsions, water quality, gas well liquid loading and formation face damage are all impediments to quality production.
In oilfield operations, emulsions refer to water droplets stabilized in a continuous oil phase otherwise known as water in oil emulsions (W/O). When oil is co-produced with water, emulsions can be encountered in all phases of oil production and processing. Emulsions are costly in terms of processing to meet product quality and unresolved emulsions can cause system shutdowns.
Water quality can be significantly impacted when oil droplets are stabilized in a continuous water phase otherwise known as oil in water emulsions (O/W). Off-spec water can be costly in terms of processing to meet environmental or other regulatory requirements.
As the gas velocity in production tubing drops, the velocity of the liquids carried by the gas decline even faster. Flow patterns of liquids on the walls of the tubing can cause liquid to accumulate in the bottom of the well that can either slow or stop gas production.
Formation damage is an impairment of reservoir permeability around the well bore leading to low or no well production or injection.
Corrosion, bacteria, and hydrogen sulfide are the leading culprits affecting the general integrity of our customers' operations.
In the oil and gas industry, corrosion is typically defined as the destructive attack of a metal through its interaction with downhole tubulars, oil and gas pipelines and process equipment.
Bacteria in oilfield systems can cause microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) and souring due to the generation of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of acid producing bacteria (APB) are also corrosive. Plugging can also occur due to slime formation as these bacteria form extracellular material that surrounds bacterial cells.
In addition, hydrogen sulfide is highly corrosive, and the by-product of corrosion is iron sulfide scale that accelerates under-deposit corrosion. Hydrogen sulfide is toxic and ranks as the second most deadly naturally occurring gas.
Scale, paraffin, asphaltenes and gas hydrates impede flow.
Scaling is the precipitation of dense, adherent material. Calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, iron carbonate and iron hydroxides are the most common scales in oilfield environments.
Paraffin deposits are wax-like solid substances derived from a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules that can lead to diminished well performance and increased lifting costs.
Asphaltenes are organic materials consisting of aromatic and naphthenic ring compounds. They are known to clog producing wells, flow lines, surface facilities and subsurface formations.
Gas hydrates are compounds in which gas molecules are trapped within a crystal structure. Once hydrates are formed, they can plug pipelines and significantly affect production operations.